russian revolution summary

still a minority within the country as a whole, they had built up Lenin established the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic and he was the leader of the new government. In 1917 Russia was convulsed by two major seizures of power. Riots over the scarcity of food broke out in the capital, Petrograd (formerly St. Petersburg), on February 24 (March 8), and, when most of the Petrograd garrison joined the revolt, Tsar Nicholas II was forced to abdicate March 2 (March 15). The massive History of the Russian Revolution was written in one year while Trotsky was in exile in Prinkipo, an island off the coast of Turkey. with other parties and compromising their principles. The Russian Revolution was a series of revolutions in the Russian Empire during 1917. The February Revolution, which removedTsar Nicholas II from power, developed spontaneouslyout of a series of increasingly violent demonstrations and riotson the streets of Petrograd(present-day St. Petersburg),during a time when the tsar was away from the capital visiting troopson the World War I front. The revolution took place in two stages. The Russian Revolution (1917–1918) The Russian Revolution took place in 1917, during the final phase of World War I. Lenin was the most important leader of the Bolshevik party. Introduction Centuries of harsh rule under the tsars, or emperors, of Russia came to an end with the Russian Revolution of 1917. The Russian Revolution: •Nicholas II was the last Tsar of Russia •In 1917, peasants rebelled due to the lack of food, and the loss of life during the Great War •On March 17, 1917, Nicholas gave up his throne •In November 1917, Vladimir Lenin took over the government, and established a communist government. calendar. Lavr Georgiyevich Kornilov inspecting Russian troops, 1917. The October Revolution, also known as the Great October Socialist Revolution, as the official term in the Soviet Union, the Bolshevik Coup, the Bolshevik Revolution, the October Uprising, the October Coup or Red October, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolshevik Party of Vladimir Lenin that was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917–1923. The Bolsheviks did not simply transfer Marxism to Russia. Kerensky’s attempt to organize resistance proved futile, and he fled the country. book follows the same method. The turmoil that existed within the country burst forth in the 1917 Revolution. When his brother, Grand Duke Michael, refused the throne, more than 300 years of rule by the Romanov dynasty came to an end. There was a shortage of labour, railway lines were shut down and small workshops were closed down. Corrections? Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Vladimir Lenin during the Russian Revolution, 1917. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. After October, the Bolsheviks realized that they could Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, leader of the Bolsheviks, was living in exile when the … Though the February Revolution was a popular uprising,it did not necess… response, the Russian Civil War broke out in the summer Russia today cite dates according to the calendar of the time; this Corruption and inefficiency were widespread in the imperial government, and ethnic minorities were eager to escape Russian domination. calendar. on the streets of Petrograd (present-day St. Petersburg), The war made revolution inevitable in two ways: it showed Russia was no longer a military match for the nations of central and western Europe, and it hopelessly disrupted the economy. Sometime in the middle of the 19th century, Russia entered a phase of internal crisis that in 1917 would culminate in revolution. The Russian Revolution of 1917 centersaround two primary events: the February Revolution and the OctoberRevolution. themselves the representatives of a dictatorship of the proletariat. Media related to Russian Revolution of 1917 at Wikimedia Commons a majority of support within Petrograd and other urban centers. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Support for Socialism. Russian Revolution and the First World War (i) In Russia the war was initially popular and people supported Tsar Nicholas II. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. not maintain power in an election-based system without sharing power Until February 1918, Russian Revolution of 1905, uprising that was instrumental in convincing Tsar Nicholas II to attempt the transformation of the Russian government from an autocracy into a constitutional monarchy. world used the Gregorian calendar in use today. The Russian Revolution of 1917 centers Like your school's revolt against the cafeteria, the Russian citizen's revolt against the Russian government did not happen overnight. Dates prior to February 1, 1918 use Updates? In the 1870s socialist formed International body-Second International which … In these soviets, “defeatist” sentiment, favouring Russian withdrawal from the war on almost any terms, was growing. The tension and unhappiness had begun years earlier. At the First All-Russian Congress of Soviets, convened on June 3 (June 16), the Socialist Revolutionaries were the largest single bloc, followed by the Mensheviks and Bolsheviks. None of them, however, was able to cope adequately with the major problems afflicting the country: peasant land seizures, nationalist independence movements in non-Russian areas, and the collapse of army morale at the front. it did not necessarily express the wishes of the majority of the General Overview: In 1917 Russia went through two revolutions: February 24–29 and October 24–25. The Bolsheviks, who led this coup, prepared they formally abandoned the democratic process in January 1918 and declared The February Revolution of March 8th, 1917 was a revolution targeted and successfully removed Czar Nicholas II from power. favored rule that was at least partially democratic. Between March and October the Provisional Government was reorganized four times. Generally, historians writing about pre-revolutionary One reason was that radical socialists increasingly dominated the soviet movement. Make a social media account documenting the Russian Revolution. Mikhail Zygar, a former editor in chief of the independent TV Rain news channel, is recreating the events of 1917 in a … The Russian Empire’s many ethnic minorities grew increasingly restive under Russian domination. to follow the Julian calendar to this day. In the early 20th century, the difference between these two calendars was 13 days, so the Julian (also called Old Style) dates October 24–25 correspond to the Gregorian dates November 6–7. As a result, By October, the Bolsheviks’ popular base was much larger; though By 1917 the bond between the tsar and most of the Russian people had been broken. The first government was composed entirely of liberal ministers, with the exception of the Socialist Revolutionary Aleksandr F. Kerensky. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. of Petrograd. Use up and down arrows to review and enter to select. At the begin-ning of the twentieth century Russia was the last major power of Europe in which the monarch was an autocrat, his power unlimited by laws or On March 15, 1917, Nicholas II abdicated the throne. on the World War I front. The Russian Revolution consisted of two revolutions in 1917 that ended Tsarist rule and eventually replaced it with a communist state. The Russian Revolution: then and now. of that year and would last well into 1920. However, most of those who took power after the February Revolution, In 1917 Lenin returned to Russia from exile with German help. The first revolution was on 8 March 1917, but in Russia it was recorded as 28 February 1917. Its causes were not so much economic or social as political and cultural. For the sake of…, While Britain, France, Italy, Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Turkey all survived their crises of 1917 and found the will and stamina for one last year of war, Russia succumbed. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/event/Russian-Revolution, Alpha History - Russian Revolution timeline 1917, The YIVO Encyclopedia of Jews in Eastern Europe - Russian Revolutions of 1917, Russian Revolution - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Russian Revolution - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up), Petrograd Soviet of Workers’ and Soldiers’ Deputies. Russian Revolution: The Revolution of 1905 The Russian Revolution of 1905 began in St. Petersburg on Jan. 22 (Jan. 9, O.S.) Results For 303 years the Russian Tsar came from the House of Romanov. The Russian Revolution was quite complicated, and this quiz/worksheet combo will help you test your understanding of the conflict. However, he was increasingly unable to halt Russia’s slide into political, economic, and military chaos, and his party suffered a major split as the left wing broke from the Socialist Revolutionary Party. The Russian Revolution of 1917 had people that would cause riots during the war. They were generally viewed as an 1, which directed the military to obey only the orders of the Soviet and not those of the Provisional Government. On March 1 (March 14) the Soviet issued its famous Order No. Although a previous coup attempt (the July Days) had failed, the time now seemed ripe. This (ii) He did not consult the Duma. The war also affected the industry. The February Revolution, which removed Kerensky became head of the Provisional Government in July and put down a coup attempted by army commander in chief Lavr Georgiyevich Kornilov (according to some historians, Kerensky may have initially plotted with Kornilov in the hope of gaining control over the Petrograd Soviet). Though the February Revolution was a popular uprising, The October Revolution In the end, it gave the Russian people an entirely new form of government. Introduction. The first revolution was mainly centred in … What’s shared is a sense of rupture, of break and loss, where liberalism and the right see inevitability. Between the February Revolution and the October Revolution, Russia was … They found viable answers to their specific revolutionary problematic in Russia within the framework of Marxism. Bloody Sunday in 1905 and the Russian defeat in the Russo-Japanese War both helped lead to the 1917 revolution. The fall of monarchy in February 1917 and the events of October were termed as the Russian Revolution. (iv) Russian armies suffered defeats and a large number of Russian soldiers were killed. influential local council representing workers and soldiers in Petrograd), generally Russian Revolution, also called Russian Revolution of 1917, two revolutions in 1917, the first of which, in February (March, New Style), overthrew the imperial government and the second of which, in October (November), placed the Bolsheviks in power. Aleksandr Kerensky, the prime…. All that now prevented the Petrograd Soviet from openly declaring itself the real government of Russia was fear of provoking a conservative coup. RUSSIAN REVOLUTION. the Julian calendar; dates after that point follow the Gregorian The Soviet soon proved that it had greater authority than the Provisional Government, which sought to continue Russia’s participation in the European war. The tsar and other Romanovs were executed by the Bolsheviks after the revolution. A committee of the Duma appointed a Provisional Government to succeed the autocracy, but it faced a rival in the Petrograd Soviet of Workers’ and Soldiers’ Deputies. Meanwhile, soviets on the Petrograd model, in far closer contact with the sentiments of the people than the Provisional Government was, had been organized in cities and major towns and in the army. Russian population, as the event was primarily limited to the city The Allies could not agree on their aims in Russia, however, and Lenin took advantage of their war-weariness. But it was the government’s inefficient prosecution of World War I that finally provided the challenge the old regime could not meet. During the twentieth A basic introduction to the Soviet Revolution of 1917. serious efforts in April 1917. Governmental corruption and inefficiency were rampant. The Russian Revolution: In Stages. Nicholas, his family, and their loyal retainers were detained by the provisional government and were eventually moved to Yekaterinburg. The Provisional Government was unable to countermand the order. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). It also the origin of the country’s modern political and socioeconomic system (Acton, Cherniaev & Rosenberg, 2007). Ill-equipped and poorly led, Russian armies suffered catastrophic losses in campaign after campaign against German armies. The tsar’s reactionary policies, including the occasional dissolution of the Duma, or Russian parliament, the chief fruit of the 1905 revolution, had spread dissatisfaction even to moderate elements. convention was dictated by the Russian Orthodox Church, which continues The Russian Revolution was, first, a political revolution that overthrew the monarchy of Nicholas II and made the construction of a new governmental system a central problem of the revolution. during a time when the tsar was away from the capital visiting troops The Russian Revolution of October 1917 is the most important cause of change in Russia. (Because the date was in October on the old Russian calendar, it is usually called the October, or Octobrist, Revolution.) The October Revolution saw Vladimir Lenin’s Bolsheviks seize power at the expense of more moderate social democrats (Mensheviks) and conservative “Whites.” Russia’s former allies, who were still fighting in World War I, soon identified the Bolsheviks as a threat equal to that of Germany, and they dispatched troops to Russia. their coup in only six months. extremist group and had very little popular support when they began The October Revolution (also called the Bolshevik Short-Term Causes of the end of Tsarism (March 1917) Petrograd workers protest food shortages and criticize the Tsarist regime, March 8-10 Petrograd was on of the main cities of the empire The Russian government was very tenuous- whether it would survive at all was point of debate in the years preceding World War One The… (ii) Anti German sentiments were high in Russia. A new democratic form of government came to power after the overthrow of the Romanov dynasty. In the October Revolution of 1917, socialists took over the government in Russia. After two years of fighting, the Bolsheviks emerged victorious. and established the Soviet Union. Revolution. Omissions? century, the Julian calendar fell thirteen days behind the Gregorian There were 7 million casualties and 3 million refugees in Russia. when troops fired on a defenseless crowd of workers, who, led by a priest, were marching to the Winter Palace to petition Czar Nicholas II. The story of the Russian Revolution starts in 1905 The Russian Revolution was a series of two revolutions that consisted of the February Revolution and the October Revolution. Primary documents on the Russian Revolution. Revolution) overturned the interim provisional government Sometimes the Bolshevik Revolution is referred to as the October Revolution. The Second All-Russian Congress of Soviets, which convened in Petrograd simultaneously with the coup, approved the formation of a new government composed mainly of Bolshevik commissars. But while the Provisional Government’s power waned, that of the soviets was increasing, as was the Bolsheviks’ influence within them. What caused the Russian Revolution and how did it overthrow the Czar? The Russian Revolution 1917 can be compared to Julius Caesar, because of the overthrowing of the government, people fighting over food shortages, killed most of Russia’s army, suffering in … In three years of war Russia had mobilized roughly 10 percent of its entire population…, One of the turning points in the struggle for power was the attempt by Gen. Lavr Kornilov, who had been appointed commander in chief, to take control of Petrograd in August 1917 and wipe out the soviet. The events destroyed the Tsarist autocracy, and helped to create the Soviet Union.. of people. Internet Modern History Sourcebook This site forms one of the three "parent" sourcebooks of the Internet History Sourcebooks which are collections of public domain and copy-permitted historical texts compiled under the direction of Paul Halsall of Fordham University. The 2,500 delegates to this soviet were chosen from factories and military units in and around Petrograd. It brought to power the Bolshevik wing of the Communist Party, led by Vladimir Lenin. It removed Russia from the war and brought about the transformation of the Russian Empire into the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), replacing Russia’s traditional monarchy with the world’s first Communist state. out of a series of increasingly violent demonstrations and riots Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. By autumn the Bolshevik program of “peace, land, and bread” had won the party considerable support among the hungry urban workers and the soldiers, who were already deserting from the ranks in large numbers. There was a shortage of grain, agricultural production slumped and … Provisional Government. Peasants, workers, and soldiers finally rose up after the enormous and largely pointless slaughter of World War I destroyed Russia’s economy as well as its prestige as a European power. that replaced the tsar) and in the Petrograd Soviet (an … On July 17, 1918, when White army forces approached the area, the tsar and his entire family were slaughtered to prevent their rescue. Tsar Nicholas II from power, developed spontaneously Bolshevik Revolution In October of 1917, Lenin and his Bolshevik Party took over the government. Russian Revolution, also called Russian Revolution of 1917, two revolutions in 1917, the first of which, in February (March, New Style), overthrew the imperial government and the second of which, in October (November), placed the Bolsheviks in power. Vladimir Lenin during the Russian Revolution, 1917. The Tsars of Russia were replaced first in February by a pair of co-existing revolutionary governments, one mainly liberal, one socialist, but after a period of confusion, a fringe socialist group lead by Lenin seized power in October and produced the world’s first socialist state. The first revolution overthrew the tsarist government and replaced it with a Provisional Government of Duma members (mostly members of the Cadet party), who allowed a Contact Commission of the Petrograd Soviet to advise the government. ' to the Russian Revolution was quite complicated, and Lenin took advantage their... 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